Lithium battery is a kind of battery that uses lithium metal or lithium alloy as positive/negative electrode material and uses non-aqueous electrolyte solution. In 1912, the lithium metal battery was first proposed and studied by Gilbert N. Lewis. In the 1970s, M. S. Whittingham proposed and began to study lithium-ion batteries. Due to the very active chemical properties of lithium metal, the processing, storage and use of lithium metal have very high environmental requirements. With the development of science and technology, lithium batteries have become the mainstream. Lithium batteries were first used in pacemakers. Lithium-ion batteries have the advantages of extremely low self-discharge rate and flat discharge voltage, so that the pacemaker implanted in the human body can operate for a long time without recharging. Lithium batteries generally have a nominal voltage higher than 3.0 volts and are more suitable for integrated circuit power supplies.
Lithium batteries can generally be charged and discharged 300-500 times. It is best to partially discharge a lithium battery rather than fully discharge it, and try to avoid frequent full discharges. Once the batteries are off the production line, the clock starts to run. Lithium batteries only last a few years, whether you use them or not. The reason for the decrease in battery capacity is the increase in internal resistance caused by oxidation (which is the main reason for the decrease in battery capacity). Eventually, the cell resistance reaches a point where, although the battery is fully charged, the battery cannot discharge the stored charge. What are the characteristics of lithium batteries?
1. Lithium batteries have higher weight-to-energy ratio and volume-to-energy ratio.
2. High voltage, the voltage of single-cell lithium battery is 3.6V, which is equal to the series voltage of 3 nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydrogen rechargeable batteries.
3. Small self-discharge can be stored for a long time, which is the most prominent advantage of this battery.
4. No memory effect. Lithium batteries do not have the so-called memory effect of nickel-cadmium batteries, so there is no need to discharge lithium batteries before charging.
5. Long life. Under normal working conditions, the number of charge/discharge cycles of lithium batteries is much greater than 500.
6. The lithium battery can be charged quickly. Lithium batteries can usually be charged with a current of 0.5 to 1 times the capacity, reducing the charging time to 1 to 2 hours.
7. Lithium batteries can be used in parallel at will.
8. Since the battery does not contain heavy metal elements such as cadmium, lead, and mercury, it has no pollution to the environment and is the most advanced green battery in contemporary times.
9. High cost. Lithium batteries are more expensive than other rechargeable batteries.